Wheat has been cultivated from earliest times. It was a chief crop in

Egypt and Palestine, and still holds its importance in the temperate

portions of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, and America.

This crop ranks third in value in the United States. It grows in cool,

in temperate, and in warm climates, and in many kinds of soil. It does

best in clay loam, and worst in sandy soils. Clogged and water-soaked

land will not grow wheat with profit to the farmer; for this reason,

where good wheat-production is desired the soil must be well drained

and in good physical condition--that is, the soil must be open, crumbly,

and mellow.

Clay soils that are hard and lifeless can be made valuable for

wheat-production by covering the surface with manure, by good tillage,

and by a thorough system of crop-rotation. Cowpeas and other legumes

make a most valuable crop to precede wheat, for in growing they add

atmospheric nitrogen to the soil, and their roots loosen the root-bed,

thereby admitting a free circulation of air and adding humus to the

soil. Moreover, the legumes leave the soil with its grains fairly close

packed, and this is a help in wheat growing.

One may secure a good seed-bed after cotton and corn as well as after

cowpeas and other legumes. They are summer-cultivated crops, and the

clean culture that has been given them renders the surface soil mellow

and the undersoil firm and compact. They are not so good, however, as

cowpeas, since they add no atmospheric nitrogen to the soil, as all

leguminous crops do.

From one to two inches is the most satisfactory depth for planting

wheat. The largest number of seeds comes up when planted at this depth.

A mellow soil is very helpful to good coming up and provides a most

comfortable home for the roots of the plant. A compact soil below makes

a moist undersoil; and this is desirable, for the soil water is needed

to dissolve plant food and to carry it up through the plant, where it is

used in building tissue.

There are a great many varieties of wheat: some are bearded, others are

smooth; some are winter and others are spring varieties. The

smooth-headed varieties are most agreeable to handle during harvest and

at threshing-time. Some of the bearded varieties, however, do so well in

some soils and climates that it is desirable to continue growing them,

though they are less agreeable to handle. No matter what variety you are

accustomed to raise, it may be improved by careful seed-selection.

The seed-drill is the best implement for planting wheat. It distributes

the grains evenly over the whole field and leaves the mellow soil in a

condition to catch what snow may fall and secure what protection it


The yield of the lower field, forty-five bushels per acre, is due to

intelligent farming]

In many parts of the country, because not enough live stock is raised,

there is often too little manure to apply to the wheat land. Where this

is the case commercial fertilizers must be used. Since soils differ

greatly, it is impossible to suggest a fertilizer adapted to all soils.

The elements usually lacking in wheat soils are nitrogen, phosphoric

acid, and potash. The land may be lacking in one of these plant foods or

in all; in either case a maximum crop cannot possibly be raised. The

section on manuring the soil will be helpful to the wheat-grower.

It should be remembered always in buying fertilizers for wheat that

whenever wheat follows cowpeas or clover or other legumes there is

seldom need of using nitrogen in the fertilizer; the tubercles on the

pea or clover roots will furnish that. Hence, as a rule, only potash and

phosphoric acid will have to be purchased as plant food.

The farmer is assisted always by a study of his crop and by a knowledge

of how it grows. If he find the straw inferior and short, it means that

the soil is deficient in nitrogen; but on the other hand, if the straw

be luxuriant and the heads small and poorly filled, he may be sure that

his soil contains too little phosphoric acid and potash.


Let the pupils secure several heads of wheat and thresh each

separately by hand. The grains should then be counted and their

plumpness and size observed. The practical importance of this is

obvious, for the larger the heads and the greater the number of

grains, the larger the yield per acre. Let them plant some of the

large and some of the small grains. A single test of this kind will

show the importance of careful seed-selection.

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