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Counting The Cost
Cutting The Trenches
Depth Of Trenches
Establishing A Grade
Kind Of Tile
Locating Main And Branches
Material For The Drains
Permanency Desired
Size Of Tile
The Grade
The Laterals
The Modern Fallow
The Outlet

More from DRAINAGE

Crops And Methods For Soil Improvement

A Bit Of Arithmetic
A Clean Seed-bed
A Few Combinations Are Safest
A Practical Test
A Southern Legume
A Three Years' Rotation
Acid Phosphate
Acquaintance With Terms
Adaptation To Eastern Needs
Affecting Physical Condition
All The Nitrogen From Clover
Alsike Clover
Amount Of Application
Amount Of Manure


There are great swamps, and small ones, whose water
should be carried off by open ditches. Our present interest is in the
wet fields of the farm,--the cold, wet soil of an entire field, the
swale lying between areas of well-drained land, the side of a field
kept wet by seepage from higher land,--and here the right solution of
the troubling problem lies in underdrainage. An excess of water in the
soil robs the land-owner of chance of profit. It excludes the air,
sealing up the plant-food so that crops cannot be secured. It keeps the
ground cold. It destroys the good physical condition of the soil that
may have been secured by much tillage, causing the soil particles to
pack together. It compels plant-roots to form at the surface of the
ground. It delays seeding and cultivation. An excess of water is more
disheartening than absolute soil poverty. The remedy is only in its
removal. The level of dead water in the soil must be below the
surface--three feet, two and one half feet, four feet,--some reasonable
distance that will make possible a friable, aerated, warm, friendly
feeding-ground for plant-roots. Only under drainage can do this.

Next: Counting The Cost

Previous: The Modern Fallow

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