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Milk Cream Churning And Butter

=Milk.= Milk is, as you know, nature's first food for mammals. This is
because milk is a model food--it contains water to slake thirst, ash to
make bone, protein to make flesh and muscle, and fat and sugar to keep
the body warm and to furnish energy.

=The Different Kinds of Milk.= Whole, or unskimmed, milk, skimmed milk,
and buttermilk are too familiar to need description. When a cow is just
fresh, her milk is called _colostrum_. Colostrum is rich in the very
food that the baby calf needs. After the calf is a few days old,
colostrum changes to what is commonly known as milk.

The following table shows the composition of each of the different forms
of milk:

COMPOSITION OF MILK Dry ProteinCarbohydrates Fat
Colostrum 25.4 17.6 2.7 3.6
Milk (unskimmed) 12.8 3.6 4.9 3.7
Skimmed milk 9.4 2.9 5.2 1.3
Buttermilk 9.9 3.9 4.0 1.1

A noticeable fact in this table is that skimmed milk differs from
unskimmed mainly in the withdrawal of the fat. Hence, if calves are fed
on skimmed milk, they should have in addition some food like corn meal
to take the place of the fat withdrawn. A calf cannot thrive on skimmed
milk alone. The amount of nourishing fat that a calf gets out of enough
milk to make a pound of butter can be bought, in the form of linseed or
corn meal, for a very small amount, while the butter-fat costs, for
table use, a much larger sum. Of course, then, it is not economical to
allow calves to use unskimmed milk. Some people undervalue skimmed milk;
with the addition of some fatty food it makes an excellent ration for
calves, pigs, and fowls.

Along with its dry matter, its protein, its carbohydrates, and its fats,
milk and its products possess another most important property. This
property is hard to describe, for its elements and its powers are not
yet fully understood. We do, however, know certainly this much: milk and
the foods made from it have power to promote health and favor growth in
a more marked degree than any other foods. It is generally agreed that
this is due to the health-promoting and health-preserving substances
which are called vitamines. Men of science are working with much care to
try to add to our knowledge of these vitamines, which have so marvelous
an influence on the health of all animals. Unless food, no matter how
good otherwise, contains these vitamines, it does not nourish the body
nor preserve bodily health as it should. A complete lack of vitamines in
our food would cause death. Since, then, milk and its products--butter,
cheese, curds--are rich in vitamines, these health-giving and
health-preserving foods should form a regular part of each person's

=Cream.= Cream is simply a mixture of butter-fat and milk. The
butter-fat floats in the milk in little globe-shaped bodies, or
globules. Since these globules are lighter than milk, they rise to the
surface. Skimming the milk is a mere gathering together of these
butter-fat globules. As most of the butter-fat is contained in the
cream, pains should be taken to get all the cream from the milk at
skimming time.

After the cream has been collected, it must be allowed to "ripen" or to
"sour" in order that it may be more easily churned. Churning is only a
second step to collect in a compact shape the fat globules. It often
happens that at churning-time the cream is too warm for successful
separation of the globules. Whenever this is the case the cream must be

=The Churn.= Revolving churns without inside fixtures are best. Hence,
in buying, select a barrel or a square box churn. This kind of churn
"brings the butter" by the falling of the cream from side to side as the
churn is revolved. Never fill the churn more than one-third or one-half
full of cream. A small churn is always to be avoided.

=Churning.= The proper temperature for churning ranges from 58 deg. to 62 deg.
Fahrenheit. Test the cream when it is put into the churn. If it be too
cold, add warm water until the proper temperature is reached; if too
warm, add cold water or ice until the temperature is brought down to
62 deg.. Do not churn too long, for this spoils butter. As soon as the
granules of butter are somewhat smaller than grains of wheat, stop the
churn. Then draw off the buttermilk and at a temperature as low as 50 deg.
wash the butter in the churn. This washing with cold water so hardens
the granules that they do not mass too solidly and thus destroy the

=Butter.= The butter so churned is now ready to be salted. Use good fine
dairy salt. Coarse barrel salt is not fit for butter. The salt can be
added while the butter is still in the churn or after it is put upon the
butter-worker. Never work by hand. The object of working is to get the
salt evenly distributed and to drive out some of the brine. It is
usually best to work butter twice. The two workings bring about a more
even mixture of the salt with the butter and drive off more water. But
one cannot be too particular not to overwork butter. Delicate coloring,
attractive stamping with the dairy owner's special stamp, and proper
covering with paper cost little and of course add to the ready and
profitable sale of butter.


_Stable and Cows_

1. Whitewash the stable once or twice each year; use land plaster, muck,
or loam daily in the manure-gutters.

2. On their way to pasture or milking-place, do not allow the cows to be
driven at a faster gait than a comfortable walk.

3. Give abundance of pure water.

4. Do not change feed suddenly.

5. Keep salt always within reach of each cow.


1. Milk with dry hands.

2. Never allow the milk to touch the milker's hands.

3. Require the milker to be clean in person and dress.

4. Milk quietly, quickly, thoroughly. Never leave a drop of milk in the
cow's udder.

5. Do not allow cats, dogs, or other animals around at milking-time.


1. Use only tin or metal cans and pails.

2. See that all utensils are thoroughly clean and free from rust.

3. Require all cans and pails to be scalded immediately after they are

4. After milking, keep the utensils inverted in pure air, and sun them,
if possible, until they are wanted for use.

5. Always sterilize the churn with steam or boiling water before and
after churning. This prevents any odors or bad flavors from affecting
the butter. All cans, pails, and bottles should also be sterilized

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